My respects to Malcolm X

 

May 19th is the birthday of Malcolm X. The life of Brother Malcolm has had a profound effect upon me personally. His autobiography chronicles obvious parallels to our struggle in his discovery that a sect leader had severely corrupted the religion he had devoted his life to defending, and his journey to discover that that religion stood for love rather than hate.

On another level Malcolm did what we are trying to do for our fellows. That is, to straighten up their spines. To make them walk tall in spite of generations of propaganda telling them they should not.

 The following passage from The Judas Factor by Karl Evanz recounts how Malcolm even gave  Reverend Martin Luther King a spinal adjustment at a time when he needed it:

 …Malcolm was in the visitor’s gallery in the Senate building in Washington, D.C., listening to the heated debate on the proposed Civil Rights Act of 1964. When he returned to the gallery on March 27, he saw three rows in front of him the man he publicly ridiculed but privately admired: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The two men who together symbolized the political conscience of Black America, acknowledged each other by simply nodding with a smile.

 (blogger note: the “debate” was in fact a warm up for a  filibuster being organized by Southern Senators in an effort to kill the legislation; a problem Dr. King apparently had no answer for)

 Afterward, as Dr. King, the Reverend Ralph Abernathy, and their entourage walked down the steps from the gallery, they noticed Malcolm X was only a few feet in front of them. King had been tremendously impressed by Malcolm X’s recent public statements urging African Americans to vote; the statements implied that Malcolm X believed that democracy could work to the advantage of America’s disenfranchised minorities.

 But the SCLC president (King) was probably dismayed by the proviso Malcolm X added to his endorsement of voting, which was that African Americans should combat violence with violence when necessary for self-defense.

 The crowd came to a standstill at the bottom of the stairs, and Dr. King and Malcolm X were suddenly standing side-by-side. An Associated Press reporter, stunned by the sight of America’s two foremost black activists conversing – in public no less – asked them if they’d agree to a brief interview. Both readily complied.

the critical moment captured

The reporter asked them whether they had reached any agreements in principle on the direction the civil rights movement should take, and whether Malcolm X considered the Civil Rights Bill important.

 “I’m here to remind the white man of the alternative to Dr. King,” Malcolm X said, flashing his trademark Cheshire cat grin. “If the white man rejects the proposed Civil Rights Bill which Dr. King supports, members of the doctor’s organization – and hopefully Dr. King himself – will hopefully coalesce with the Muslim Mosque, Incorporated, in order to effect an end to the racial, social and economic oppression of the black man here in America.”

 “How long do you expect the debate to continue?” the reporter asked, facing Dr. King. “A month would be long enough,” King answered sternly. “A creative direct action program will start if they are still talking about the bill after the first week in May.”

 What would happen, the reporter wanted to know, if the debate continued beyond that point?

At first,” King replied, “we would seek to persuade with our words –” King paused for effect, and said, “then our deeds.”

 The words had an ominous ring, considering that Malcolm X, the man the press often referred to as the ‘angriest Negro in America,’ was standing beside the man known as America’s ‘apostle of nonviolence.’

 Then, as if to remove any doubt about the import of his statement, Dr. King made a prediction. “If this bill is not passed,” he warned, “our nation is in for a dark night of social disruption.”

 As King and Malcolm X smiled approvingly at each other, with Abernathy standing in the background, photographers captured on film a moment in African American history that FBI Director Hoover interpreted as an act of treason.

(Blogger’s note: Shortly thereafter, President Johnson – the pragmatic Texan he was – began twisting Senators’ arms in private to end the filibuster and pass the legislation. The rest is known history.)

Finally, in honor of Malcolm’s legacy here is the final 8 1/2 minutes of Spike Lee’s film ‘X’, which includes the beautiful eulogy delivered at Malcolm’s funeral by Ossie Davis. 

47 responses to “My respects to Malcolm X

  1. Pingback: Tweets that mention My respects to Malcolm X « Moving On Up a Little Higher -- Topsy.com

  2. My respects to Malcolm X. This one’s for you Malcolm:

  3. Shit Marty, this hit me really hard – back in the day, I was such a strong (but silent) supporter of Malcolm X as well as the Black Panthers. As a young white kid i’d secretly cheer them on with every achievement they ripped from the m. f.’ing white establishment.

    Similar feelings get churned up here. The struggle is so similar: the same outrages and injustices. The same, in your face “I am doing these things because I can, asshole” “Not for long, motherfucker”!

    I’m really glad you posted this.

  4. He sure had guts.

    However, his security detail was obviously not assigned the right condition.

    I was always amazed that people were not searched before entering the Audobon Ballroom. Especially in light of the threats he was receiving from Nation of Islam mucky mucks.

    In any event, he sure went out bravely. Faced his assassins with courage, and died for what he believed was a just cause.

    I hope he is enjoying life, wherever he may be in PT.

    Centurion (Asalam Alakim)

  5. I had a good cry Marty. Thanks.

  6. BarakAllahu Feekum, JazakAllahu Khayran, Marty.

    Translation:

    May Allah bless you (a statement of thanks), May Allah reward you for the good (Islamic expression of deep gratitude).

  7. In a 1965 conversation with Gordon Parks, two days before his assassination, Malcolm said:

    Listening to leaders like Nasser, Ben Bella, and Nkrumah awakened me to the dangers of racism. I realized racism isn’t just a black and white problem. It’s brought bloodbaths to about every nation on earth at one time or another.

    Brother, remember the time that white college girl came into the restaurant—the one who wanted to help the [Black] Muslims and the whites get together—and I told her there wasn’t a ghost of a chance and she went away crying?

    Well, I’ve lived to regret that incident.

    In many parts of the African continent I saw white students helping black people. Something like this kills a lot of argument. I did many things as a [Black] Muslim that I’m sorry for now. I was a zombie then—like all [Black] Muslims—I was hypnotized, pointed in a certain direction and told to march.

    Well, I guess a man’s entitled to make a fool of himself if he’s ready to pay the cost. It cost me 12 years.

    That was a bad scene, brother. The sickness and madness of those days—I’m glad to be free of them.

  8. One of my favorite Malcom X speeches is “Who Taught You To Hate Yourself?”

    The axiomatic truths in his speeches have applications to any type of slave master.

    It took *behemoth* courage to stand up in his day, with all the counter agreement and lies in place against him. Again, those lies were perpetuated by slave-masters who sought to serve themselves, hence creating the lie of slavery.

    One can substitute details in the slavery equation — whether slavery because of a race, a color, a gender, an appearance matters not — but the common denominator is one and the same.

    That common denominator to all slavery is the attempt of the slave master to convince another human being he/she is less than — for the heinous, oppressive, dishonest agenda of personal gain or advantage.

    I can see why you admire Malcom X, Marty.

    He stood up for principle and honor, despite personal danger. He is a hero against any kind of slavery.

    “Who Taught You To Hate Yourself?” could be an address to any target of of the slave master: It could speak to women. It could speak to children. It could speak to Afroamericans. It could speak to staff and public abused within shams posing as “Churches.”

    Happy Birthday, Malcom X. You were/are an elegant, eloquent beacon for human dignity.

    • We are very lucky to have you among us Veritas.

      • I agree completely. And thank you for the additional info. I never really learned about Malcolm X but from just what is put here, I can relate what he said exactly to the plight of far too many Afro-Americans here in the deep South.
        An organization that I support in any way I can is BOND – Brotherhood Organization of a New Destiny – http://www.bondinfo.org/
        which is in L.A. started by Reverend Jesse Lee Peterson. Their motto is “Rebuilding the Family by Rebuilding the Man”

      • “There is no hospitality like understanding.”

        Jim, Thank you so much. That was so lovely to see. I feel very lucky to be among you.

  9. The absolute nads these men of destiny had.

    They knew their lives were in imminent danger, but they also knew that they could be martyred and that their own demise would be a means to the same end.

    And that, my friends, is what brave men do: They put their lives on the line for other people, to forward their culture, to keep life going.

    These men, these giants that drifted unnoticed for the most part in American Culture are the very fabric of what America originally stood for and was about.

    America has been and always will be the battleground for freedom. The fights are fought here and the results have always been the same: The good win and the evil go away. That is the American way. It is in every American book and movie: The good guys win.

    Now we find ourselves, once again, fighting for our very survival, right here in America. Who is watching? The CIA, the FBI, the AMA, the APA, the International Bankers, the US Government, tens of thousands of Scientologists who are lurkers (are watching carefully), a few hundred who are contributing and a few whose lives are actually on the line.

    But all of the above are watching what is going down here with great interest because the outcome will mean something to each of them.

    This is not a minor game here, this blog of Marty’s; this is a game for life and freedom. Make no mistake, major SPs are watching and waiting for the right time to jump in with the hopes of putting the end to LRHs dream. Others want to jump in to take advantage and make money off of this. Others want it to survive and others are anxiously hopeful that we somehow pull this all out.

    But it is not up to the few, it is up to the many which way the outcome of this situation will go. Martin and Malcom opened the doors, their followers made the rest happen. Same will be true here.

    Tom

  10. One of Abraham Lincoln’s greatest speeches (played by Raymond Massey). Brilliant. It applies as much to the Church of Miscavology, as it does to other attempts to create slaves.

    • This appears to be an amalgamation of several different speeches by Lincoln. I found this part (from his first debate with Douglas in 1858 to be especially poignant:

      “I hate [indifference to slavery] because of the monstrous injustice of slavery itself. I hate it because it deprives our republican example of its just influence in the world-enables the enemies of free institutions, with plausibility, to taunt us as hypocrites-causes the real friends of freedom to doubt our sincerity, and especially because it forces so many really good men amongst ourselves into an open war with the very fundamental principles of civil liberty-criticizing the Declaration of Independence, and insisting that there is no right principle of action but self-interest.”

      Substitute “Miscavology” for “slavery” and it rings true today.

      These warriors of social justice and human rights deserve to be honored and revered. Imagine what this culture would be like if they had NOT made a stand.

    • Bravo!

  11. Marty,

    Great Post, and nice to see you give tribute to Malcom X.

    “An Un-Compromising Rebel ” as stated by those who knew him.

    One of my favorite facts I found was that Malcom read the dictionary front to back three times (suposedly memorizing it) enabling him to speak and debate with such an exspansive vocabulary that influenced millions. Thus becomming a threat to the “social order” of the time.

    As you state the parallels are stricking as to his dicoveries of the truths beyond the PR.

    His story is an excellent read.

  12. Felicitas Foster

    Thanks Marty, this was very good data and it was compiled very nicely together with the video.

    Yes, we are the same kind of rebels at this point and we might loose one or the other on our way to freedom but we are making it. Our hearts are full of affinity and admiration and we are willing to grant beingness and to communicate – what else do we need to conquer whatever we set out to conquer.

    Thanks,
    Felicitas

  13. Malcolm: “In honoring him we honor the best in ourselves”. From Ossie Davis’ eulogy.

  14. The Autobiography of Malcolm X is one of the books that educated me most about the meaning of personal integrity. Through it, Malcolm became one of the best models I’ve ever had of how a person can learn to be honest with themselves about themselves. He was a model of someone who developed as a human being, finding and accepting more workable viewpoints, who gradually moved on up a little higher, then a little higher still.

    He was also a model of how someone who is hated and abused can find his way through hating and abusing to accepting and loving. It’s a hard path and takes time. It requires us to divest ourselves of ego. It arrives at personal integrity, for which the principal (O.E.D.) definition is: “The condition of having no part or element taken away or wanting; undivided or unbroken state; material wholeness, completeness, entirety.”

    Just Me

    • martyrathbun09

      Just Me, I agree with your contribution here. One lesson I believe is that in order to exercise that level of integrity one must fully de-pts oneself, fully. One is blinded and muzzled to the degree one is censoring him/herself to avoid consequences. First, lose the ingrained slave mentality utterly. Then one can go about helping others do the same.

    • Just Me,

      You asked: “Michael, Who the hell ARE you?
      I don’t mean post it here if you don’t want to, but I would really like to know.

      Just Me”

      You’re not the first to wonder or ask. Tone 41 and I highjacked Marty’s post of April 23 (titled “Tonight’s Report”) and talked for several days about it. David St. Lawrence has a site where I did a brief profile.

      Like most of us, I am discovering who I am before I was. A lot of “was”es. A lot of am’s. Just one before, and words are a waste there.

      You’re sitting on a bus next to woman named Rowling, and you leave thinking, “now, there’s a woman on welfare.”

      Legends abound about Lao Tze and his work. One has it that a guard made him write what he knew before leaving the city.

      So, Just me, I am who I am whether I write a single word or not. I am who I am whether others can see me or not.

      Those who have known me this life would liberally lace their descriptions with terms like “fucking crazy,” “social misfit,” and myriad curses. Then they would smile, shake their heads and recall how life was never boring when I was around.

      So, who am I? I’m the smile that steals across your face when you think back and realize that even when it didn’t feel like it at the time, life can be rewarding and enjoyed for what it is.

      And though, Just Me, this answers your question, it also does not. Life is complex. Life operates on so many levels.

      And the contradictions are usually merely faces of the same thing.

      And taking the side of one contradiction over the other is merely a failure to reach enough to embrace the whole thing and know what it is– rather than only what it appears to be from one side.

      Much love,

      Michael

  15. Sometimes it takes a while until the message goes through , but at one point it goes through.
    The following is one of the leafelets from the White Rose Groupe ( members there where also Ann Sophie Scholl and her brother ) during Nazi Germany. And their work changed something in Germany also after their dead . The you tube link is from Franz Müller , a survior of this group , talking.

    Leaflets of The Resistance Movement in Germany. A Call to All Germans! The war is approaching its destined end. As in the year 1918, the German government is trying to focus attention exclusively on the growing threat of submarine warfare, while in the East the armies are constantly in retreat and invasion in imminent in the West. Mobiliation in the United States has not yet reached its climax, but already it exceeds anything that the world has ever seen. It has become a mathematical certainty that Hitler is leading the German people into the abyss. Hitler cannot win the war; he can only prolong it. The guilt of Hitler and his minions goes beyond all measure. Retribution comes closer and closer. But what are the German people doing? They will not see and will not listen. Blindly they follow their seducers into ruin. Victory at any price! is inscribed on their banner. “I will fight to the last man,” says Hitler-but in the meantime the war has already been lost. Germans! Do you and your children want to suffer the same fate that befell the Jews? Do you want to be judged by the same standards are your seducers? Are we to be forever a nation which is hated and rejected by all mankind? No. Dissociate yourselves from National Socialist gangsterism. Prove by your deeds that you think otherwise. A new war of liberation is about to begin. The better part of the nation will fight on our side. Cast off the cloak of indifference you have wrapped around you. Make the decision before it is too late. Do not believe the National Socialist propoganda which has driven the fear of Bolshevism into your bones. Do not believe that Germany’s welfare is linked to the victory of national Socialism for good or ill. A criminal regime cannot achieve a German victory. Separate yourselves in time from everything connected with National Socialism. In the aftermath a terrible but just judgment will be meted out to those who stayed in hiding, who were cowardly and hesitant. What can we learn from the outcome of this war-this war that never was a national war? The imperialist ideology of force, from whatever side it comes, must be shattered for all time. A one sided Prussian militarism must never again be allowed to assume power. Only in large-scale cooperation among the nations of Europe can the ground be prepared for reconstruction. Centralized hegemony, such as the Prussian state has tried to excercise in Germany and in Europe, must be cut down at its inception. The Germany of the future must be a federal state. At this juncture only a sound federal system can inbue a weakened Europe with a new life. The workers must be liberated from their condition of down trodden slavery under National Socialism. The illusory structure of autonomous national industry must disappear. Every nation and each man have a right to the goods of the whole world! Freedom of speech, freedom of religion, the protection of individual citizens from the abritrary will of criminal regimes of violence-these will be the bases of the New Europe.

    Support the resistance, distribute the leaflets!

  16. Truthfully, I didn’t know very much about Malcom but took a few minutes to read his bio, linked below.

    There are quite a few parallels to what is going on with the church.

    I also understand now why he was so militant in the beginning and how/when that changed. Had he lived longer, his good works would have been more broadly understood.

    He truly was a man of great integrity.

    Thanks for acknowledging him, Marty.

    http://www.africawithin.com/malcolmx/malcolm_bio.htm

  17. Marty,

    Thanks for this post. I was only vaguely aware of Malcolm and though I had indended to finde out more about him, what I had been led to believe in my youth was that he was violent, and the antithesis of MLK jr. My father was a history buff, but I never had much time for that as I was always studying the tech or reading fiction for enjoyment. I now have time to study more broadly and have started with Mark Headley’s, Amy’s and Jeff’s books but plan to expand to a broad base of subjects, thanks in no small part to your posts and the replies here.

    I have always studied philosophy; that is what led me to Scn. as I had investigated a wide range of philosophical and religious areas prior to running into it. I am very much at home here and really enjoy the thoughts and ideas many people present here.

    Thanks all

  18. crashingupwards

    Malcolm X. When I was in High school I read his auto-biography. Very interesting and eye-opening. The life and culture in the ghetto of Harlem. How some blacks felt about others who got their hair straightened so they would be more acceptable to whites. How the injustices of society rocked him and molded his opinions and actions. Islams basis of “justice” attracting him as societys injustices repelled him.

    I also remember how villified he was at the time in most of the society around me. And the antipathy towards him was borne out of FEAR. And the unease because many knew, who were willing to at least consider the other side of the coin, that he was RIGHT.

    My immediate family, though not colorblind and afflicted with some of the racial fears found in society(aka street smarts in the cities), had no ax to grind or agenda against anyone, of any race. I was raised to accept everyone until they gave me a reason not to. I was taught we are all God’s children. I am grateful for that.

    I was raised in a less dangerous envirorment than Malcom X and didnt feel the injustices he felt. I didnt feel the lack of opportunity he saw. Few of us were raised in anything close to the ghetto.
    But given a similar envirorment for upbringing, I suspect quite a few of those posting here whould have walked down the same road he walked. There is a kindred spirit with Malcolm X.

    Along with Malcolm we are on the right side of history and the right side of justice. We share a spirit of fighting against the wrongs which poison society and keep men down.

    Happy Birthday Malcolm X. Put your zoot suit on.

    • martyrathbun09

      Crashingupwards, Thanks. If I ever get around to completing my book, the dots will connect and the parallels will become patently clear. Here’s one of them that will provide some food for thought. The forces that attempted to destroy Malcolm, Martin and the civil rights movement were the very ones that attempted to destroy L. Ron Hubbard and Scientology. And NOI’s Dear Leader (Elijah Mohammad) conspired with them to specifically end Malcolm. Over the past twenty years DM has sold L. Ron Hubbard down the river to be accepted and protected by the type of very best people Elijah sold out to. The thug you saw hauled out from the assassination scene by the mob (in the clip I provided) was subsequently protected by the Feds. Edward Bennet Williams represented him and succeeded in protecting his client from revealing any of the conspirators involved in the assassination. A senior partner at Williams’ firm (Williams and Connally) is now DM’s personal criminal attorney. He was at Int just three weeks ago to discuss how to take me out of the running. OSA personnel have been heard to say recently that they do not have any fear of DM being brought to justice, because of their “excellent lines” at the top of the Department of Justice. Conspiracy theory? No, that’s just the way it is. Am I going into agreement with that state of affairs? Decidedly not.

      • Monique Yingling’s husband works at Williams and Connoly. Gerald Alan Feffer.

      • Remember that the National Secretary of the Nation of Islam was later revealed to be an FBI informant when the COINTELPRO operation was brought to light. It would not surprise me in the least that a similar situation exists within Corporate Scientology….after all, once infiltrated it is a cheap source of “intelligence information”.
        But obviously any “real gain” would have to be disallowed, so the criminals could continue to operate undetected.

      • That is one amazing connection.

  19. Bobby Seal mellowed out. He is doing great , put out a bar b que cook book. Nice to see someone who survived making a difference. And someone enjoying that difference.I grew up in the thick of all of it in the Haight Ashbury and East Village. People then were shape shifters because you had to fly through many dimensions to get through the days and cross over several cultures. I think that is why I get frustrated now when I see someone clinging to a policy on comm baskets as if it was biblical. Especially when email is available. I hope we all get to a point in our lives, where we can enjoy the difference we have made in this world. That was a goal and it is possible to have it now. The world is a manageable place with a lot of freedom and pleasure to offer. There are plenty of auditors to get you up the bridge. It is entirely possible to have a great life. You just have to make one.

  20. And that’s what we love about you Marty, is the high level of disagree that you have.

    Most men would have long ago run back to their momas by now, but you always stand even stronger and up your game in the face of adversity.

    You stand real strong. Power stars like Mike, Haydn, Jim, Dean, Christy, JB and others not mentioned here are all right behind you ready to go into the Valley of Death with you.

    And the list of power stars grows.

    ML Tom

  21. Marty,

    Brilliant post. Your courage and hard work are fomenting a revolutionary awakening. You are saving people who have had their freedom covertly stolen.

    An recent OT VIII complete friend of mine, who has been on staff, recently left staff in protest of the gestapo style “briefing” by IAS regges. She was repeatedly locked in rooms at her orgs and on the Freewinds and forced to submit to 5 hour long sessions of harassment. One staff member was sent to her house to “reg” her. The women physically attacked her inside her own home when she refused to give her money!!

    She e-mailed me to details of the torture she was undergoing. I started sending her copies of your Blog posts. Thanks to your Blog and it’s many contributors, this women has been de-PTSed!

    Thank you for your eternal vigilance and willingness to fight back!

  22. Thank you, Marty, for the tribute and the insight. My world is a-rockin at the moment. Whoo. Shit man!

  23. I like him so much in this.

  24. Awesome.

    One of the things I like about Malcolm X is that he was willing to admit when he was wrong, and he always stood up for what he thought was the truth. If he later found out that what he thought was a lie, then he acknoledged it.

    For example, he embraced the Nation of Islam as it’s philosophy whole-heartedly, but once he found out for a fact that it was a corrupt organization, and that the philosophy it preached was not entirely correct (true Islam has nothing to do with race), he QUIT, and spoke out against that very organization that he had once defended.

    Sound familiar? ^_^

  25. Lady Lancelot

    This is a little bit off topic, but maybe DM is just stressed out. Here’s an excerpt from Yahoo Features:

    Stressful Situations

    Problem: Stress can be a problem at work regardless of how physical your day-to-day activities are, but those who do exert themselves on the job can actually use some of their activities to ease their stress. If you’re chained to a desk, however, you may be even more likely to have stress-related outbursts.

    About one-sixth of workers said anger at work led to property damage, and 2%-3% of workers admit to pushing, slapping or hitting someone at work, according to Reuters.

    “With roughly 100 million people in the U.S. work force … that’s as many as 3 million people,” Reuters reports.

    Additionally, about 22% of U.S. workers say they’ve been driven to tears because of workplace stress and 9% say that stress has led to physically violent situations, reports RJC Associates, a career development firm.

  26. I’ve been looking at emotion lately. What is it? And how does it apply? I look at this article about Malcolm X and the responses, and wonder about the unexpressed responses.

    But mostly I wonder about the emotions here.

    And beyond.

    At what point does a thetan enter the emotional bands?

    In DMSMH, LRH wrote about the dynamic principle of existence: survival. And then he discussed the tone scale relative to that survival. At the bottom of that scale was apathy, or completely not caring.

    We enter the emotional bands when we care. caring is investing theta, interest, ARC and KRC in the survival of self, another, others, all across the dynamics. One can invest that caring in a project or a subject.

    And by caring we can be driven to anger and to fear and to grief. If we didn’t care, we would not anger, fear or grieve.

    And our expansion as a being depends pretty much on how much we care. How much care will we invest in self, another, others, and the entire spectrum of life?

    Great souls, great beings achieve that greatness by caring. They invest themselves in their goals and all elements pertinent to that goal. And the greater the being, the greater the goal, the more broadly that goal affects individuals and society.

    To not care is to not worry. But, to not care is to not achieve. To not care is to not live.

    Malcolm’s anger stemmed from caring. Fortunately, he was able to step beyond that anger to a greater understanding. His greatness lay in how much he cared, how much he was willing to invest of himself in a cause.

    And in the end, that will determine the greatness of our lives, the greatness of our contributions, the greatness of what we leave.

    Much love,

    Michael

    • Michael, Excellent points.

      Indifference is considered a “mortal sin” by many poets and theologies.

      That makes sense when one considers what is mortal about it — it’s the death of the spirit, of involvement, of love, of allegiance to life.

  27. I too read the Autobiography of MalcolmX at a young age (15) and it was life changing for me as well. Thanks for reminding of this great man who had the courage to change his mind and speak a new direction.

  28. Below is the legacy of MLK and Malcolm X. This definition od Civil Rights is from the Cornel University Law School:

    “A civil right is an enforceable right or privilege, which if interfered with by another gives rise to an action for injury. Examples of civil rights are freedom of speech, press, and assembly; the right to vote; freedom from involuntary servitude; and the right to equality in public places. Discrimination occurs when the civil rights of an individual are denied or interfered with because of their membership in a particular group or class. Statutes have been enacted to prevent discrimination based on a person’s race, sex, religion, age, previous condition of servitude, physical limitation, national origin, and in some instances sexual preference.”

    Marty, I do believe your civil rights get violated every day.

    ML Tom

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